Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on submarine volcanoes.
“Much like volcanoes on dry land, an underwater volcano is a fissure on the earth’s surface where lava is produced and can erupt.” (Raine, 2010)
The causes of a volcanic eruption cannot be analyzed without an understanding of the earth’s structure. The core of the planet is boiling and contains a reservoir of molten rock called magma. This magma is bounded by more relaxed layers of rock that form the earth’s crust, including both the ocean floor and land, which increases the internal pressure caused by heat. However, when the crust releases the tension from any opening or when the internal pressure can overcome the external force, the magma breaks through the earth’s surface. It erupts, releasing the magma in the form of molten lava and ash. .(Raine, 2010)
The essential characteristics of submarine volcanoes are that the eruptions from the volcanoes are affected by the pressure and temperature of the water around them. (Topinka, 2003)
“…the volcanic phenomena take place very much in the same manner from the bottom of the sea as from the open surface of a continent, subject only to modifications produced by the lower temperature of the surrounding medium, and the greater external pressure, caused by the weight of the overlying column of water, which in this case becomes one of the elements of the repressive force.” (Scrope, 1862)
In shallow waters, this lava is cooled so rapidly that it transforms into ‘black sand’ or volcanic debris almost instantaneously or forms volcanic glass. (Palande, 2011)This debris is either piled-up around the volcanic vent or settles down along the seafloor. (Topinka, 2003) Eventually, the piling up emerges above the ocean’s surface in the form of volcanic islands, some of which can be seen in the south Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans. (Tufty, 1969.) (Crouse, 2012).
In the deeper part of the ocean, volcanic activity resembles the volcanoes on land in terms of shape and flows .(Topinka, 2003). They are seen to be slightly steeper as the water speeds up the hardening. .(Rafferty, 2011.