This assignment requires two responses:  need to determine the theoretical framework being used to analyze the institution of sports and need to determine the level of sociology– macrosociology or microsociology.

Read the following scenario and determine the following:
Which sociological theoretical framework is being used to examine the institution of Sports? What level of sociology does the theoretical framework use?

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This theory directs our attention that throughout history men have dominated the world of sports.  For example, the first modern Olympic Games, held in 1896, barred women from competition.  Throughout most of the twentieth century, Little League teams barred girls based on traditional ideas that girls and women lack the strength to play sports and risk losing their femininity if they do.  Both the Olympics and the Little League are now open to females as well as males, but even today, our society still encourages men to become athletes while expecting women to be attentive observers and cheerleaders.  At the college level, men’s athletics attracts a greater amount of attention and resources compared to women’s athletics, and men greatly outnumber women as coaches, even in women’s sports (Welch & Sigelman, 2007).  At the professional level, women also take a back seat to men, particularly in sports with the most earning power and social prestige.

Feminist Theory
Functionalism
Conflict Theory
Symbolic Interactionism
Macrosociology
Microsociology

Read the following scenario and determine the following:
Which sociological theoretical framework is being used to examine the institution of Sports?  What level of sociology does the theoretical framework use?
This theory directs our attentions to way that some games people play reflect their social standing.  Some sports—including tennis, swimming, golf, sailing, and skiing—are expensive, so taking part is largely limited to the well to do.  Football, baseball, and basketball, however, are accessible to people at almost all income levels.  Thus, the games people play are not simply a matter of individual choice but also reflect their social standing.
This theory also directs our attention to how persons of color were excluded from big league sports.  Although, persons of color are able to play big league sports, racial discrimination still exists in professional sports.  For one thing, race is linked to the positions athletes play on the field, a pattern called “stacking.”  For example, in baseball, white athletes are more concentrated in the central “thinking” positions of pitcher (68 percent) and catcher (64 percent).  By contrast, African Americans represent only 4 percent of pitchers and 1 percent of catchers.  At the same time, 9 percent of infielders are African Americans, as are 28 percent of outfielders, positions characterized as requiring “speed and reactive ability” (Lapchick, 2010).
Although many individual players get sky-high salaries and millions of fans enjoy following their teams, vast profits sports generate are controlled by small number of people—predominantly white men.

Feminist Theory
Functionalism
Conflict Theory
Symbolic Interactionism
Macrosociology
Microsociology

Read the following scenario and determine the following:
Which sociological theoretical framework is being used to examine the institution of Sports?  What level of sociology does the theoretical framework use?
This theory directs our attention to way sports helps society operate.  The intended/anticipated role of sports for society includes providing recreation as well as offering a means of getting in physical shape and a relatively harmless way to let off steam.  The unintended/unanticipated role of sports for society would include building social relationships and also creating tens of thousands of jobs across the country.  Participating in sports encourages competition and the pursuit of success, both which are values that are central to our society’s way of life.
Sports can also have flawed consequences.  For example, colleges and universities try to field winning teams to build a school’s reputation and also to raise money from alumni and corporate sponsors.  In the process, however, these schools sometimes recruit students for their athletic skill rather than their academic ability.  This practice not only lowers the academic standards of the college or university but also shortchanges athletes.

Conflict Theory
Functionalism
Feminist Theory
Symbolic Interactionism
Macrosociology
Microsociology

Read the following scenario and determine the following:
Which sociological theoretical framework is being used to examine the institution of Sports? What level of sociology does the theoretical framework use?
This theory directs our attention to the way players understand the game and how they interact with the game and other players.  In part, play is guided by the players’ assigned positions and the rules of the game.  But players are spontaneous and unpredictable.  We expect each player to understand the game a little differently.  The behavior of any single player may change over time.  A rookie in professional baseball, for example, may feel self-conscious during the first few games in the big leagues but go on to develop a comfortable sense of fitting in with the team.  Coming to feel at home on the field was slow and painful for Jackie Robinson (first African American player to play MLB), who knew that many white players and millions of white fans resented his presence.  In time, however, his outstanding ability his confidence and cooperative manner won him the respect of the entire nation.
Some players enjoy a setting of stiff competition, while for others, it is the love of the game may be greater than the need to win.  There are many different reasons as to why players participate in sports.

Feminist Theory
Conflict Theory
Functionalism
Symbolic Interactionism
Macrosociology
Microsociology

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