1. What is the placebo effect? Describe some research techniques that have been developed to separate specific drug effects from placebo effects.

2. Explain why an experienced heroin user would most likely choose to smoke or inject the drug rather than taking it orally. Then explain why inexperienced users should initially be discouraged from these routes of administration.

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3. Explain the different preparations of cocaine and how they are used.

4. Explain why the addiction potential of cocaine was unrecognized for many years

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