Paper instructions:

Choose TWO of the following three questions, cut and paste them into a Word document, and
answer each of them using material from the course (i.e., lectures, textbook, readings, videos,
material linked from the course website, etc.). No outside research is necessary. Your answers
should be 500-600 words per question. This is a hard word limit, do not ask to exceed it. Turn in
your assignment as a Word document (.docx) and no other formats (e.g., .pdf, .odt) using the
Turnitin link on the course website.
You do not need to follow ‘essay format’ (with introduction, main body, and conclusion) for each
answer. Instead, focus on answering the question in a few paragraphs using complete
sentences, proper grammar, and clear language. You are encouraged to write in the active,
first-person voice. That is, “in this answer I will describe … To conclude, I will outline …”
You do not need to include in-text citations and a reference list but you should make it clear
where the information is coming from. This should be done in ‘narrative style’ – for example, “In
Ch.11 of the textbook, the context of X is discussed in reference to Y … ” or, “In article X, it was
argued that …” or, “In the lecture on Ch.5, it was explained that …” and so on. If you insist on
using in-text citations and a reference list, do not count them in your final word count.
You are welcome to use the Writing Centre services to help you with this assignment, and you
are free to discuss with your classmates and consult your course materials. However, all
submitted answers must be your own work and ideas, and you should not plagiarize or
self-plagiarism (i.e., do not copy and paste writing from other assignments). Turnitin will be used
to detect plagiarism and self-plagiarism (and it is good at what it does). Make sure the version
that you submit is your final version. Use the filename: Lastname_Firstname_AssignX, where X
is the assignment number.
The questions were written with a balance between the contents of the video lectures and
textbook in mind. They represent relatively equal challenge, with each relating to historical
analysis and substantive issues and concepts from the history of modern psychology.
Question 2A:
Theories of consciousness have implications for notions of free will. William James, B. F.
Skinner, and Sigmund Freud each grappled with issues of free will in the early twentieth
century. Describe the key issues of the ‘free will versus determinism debate’ (5) and the
positions of each of the three pioneers in this debate (5). Use examples (2) and concepts (2)
from the lectures and textbook. Spelling and grammar are important (1). This question is graded
out of fifteen (/15).
Question 2B:
Behaviorism has always had its critics, even when it was the dominant theoretical position in
American academic psychology. Outline the advantages of behaviorism as an approach to
psychology (5) and describe some of the major issues that led to the abandonment of strict
behaviorism in favor of a cognitive orientation in the mid-twentieth century (5). Use examples (2)
and concepts (2) from the lectures and textbook. Spelling and grammar are important (1). This
question is graded out of fifteen (/15).
Question 2C:
A young woman has a recurring dream where there are two barrels floating in the ocean. She is
inside one of the barrels and can only see the water and the sky. She knows there’s something
evil lurking in the other barrel because she can hear her father’s voice calling her, but she tells
him to be quiet or else the evil in the other barrel will hear. She suddenly starts to fall and the
dream ends. Upon waking she finds that she is terrified of being around open water.
Both Sigmund Freud and B. F. Skinner agree to help this young woman. How might each of the
two men make sense of this particular condition, and why? (5). Describe in what ways their
recommended treatment for this condition might differ, and why (5). Use examples (2) and
concepts (2) from the lectures and the textbook. Spelling and grammar are important (1). This
question is graded out of fifteen (/15)

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