Need help with my writing homework on Litrture review on self and identity in stutters. Write a 3000 word paper answering;
These disruptions c) usually occur frequently or are marked in character and d) are not readily controllable.
II. Sometimes the disruptions are e) accompanied by accessory activates involving the speech apparatus, related or unrelated body structures, or stereotyped speech utterances. These activities give the appearance of being speech-related struggle.
III. Also, there not infrequently are f) indications or reports of an emotional state, ranging from a general condition of “excitement” or “tension” to more specific emotions of a negative nature such as fear, embarrassment, irritation, or the like. g) the immediate source of stuttering is incoordination expressed in the peripheral speech mechanism. the ultimate cause is presently unknown and maybe complex or compound (p. 498).
Stuttering relates to developmental disorders: it gradually or suddenly develops in children that initially demonstrate signs of normal fluency of speech (Guitar, 1998).
Although aetiology of stuttering is not fully clear it is generally considered a multifactorial disorder that involves affective, behavioural, and cognitive elements (Yaruss & Quesal, 2004). Cooper and Cooper (1995) identify three types of stuttering:
Remediable stuttering when children are able to overcome their disfluencies by learning and applying techniques that are supervised by a speech and language therapist. In addition, family and friends involvement is necessary to be able to reach almost normal or acceptable level of fluency.
Chronic preservative stuttering which is the most devastating and least common case of stuttering. Moreover, individuals with this type often do not stabilize in their fluency although they have been able to achieve it with therapy. Individuals that reach adolescents with out an acceptable level of fluency from treatment have a more chance of developing chronic preservative stuttering.