Need an research paper on management (potential automated systems). Needs to be 10 pages. Please no plagiarism. Automation has implications for both the engine and deck departments. One of the primary responsibilities of the deck department is safe navigation. They are responsible for communicating with other ships, communicating with the vessel tracking system, planning safe courses, executing courses, and avoiding collision with other ships. When executing manoeuvres, the deck department communicates the required changes in engine speed to the engine room, where the appropriate adjustments are made. Automation plays a major role in the deck department, and prototype systems suggest that automation may play an even more important role in the future. Automation in the deck department began with the development of the radar, and has progressed to radar enhanced with automated radar plotting aids. More recently, the electronic chart display information system is beginning to replace paper charts. Perhaps the most advanced automation systems are artificial intelligence systems that combine navigation and ship performance information to provide routing and manoeuvring suggestions to the crew. Other developments include more advanced autopilots that enhance fuel efficiency, and complex combinations of engine, rudder, and thruster’s controllers that enable the watch officer to dock the ship without need for multiple tugboats. Several countries are working to develop fully integrated bridges that combine elements of all these automated systems to produce an integrated suite of navigation and ship control aids. These changes may make it possible for a single person to act as the helmsman, lookout, and watch officer. (Dicken, 2003)

Similar changes have occurred in the engine department. Older ships operate with a 24-hour watch consisting of a wiper, a water-tender, a fireman, and an engineer. However, technology has automated many aspects of the engineering department and has made unattended engine rooms possible. Automation supports planned maintenance with computerized schedules of maintenance tasks. Automation also supports predictive maintenance by tracking changes in vibration signatures of engine components and providing sophisticated ultrasound data that verify the structural integrity of system components. On these ships, the engine room is monitored remotely and engineers perform maintenance during normal work hours. (Dicken, 2003)

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Automation Pros & Cons

Automation on modern ships has begun to blur the distinction between the deck and engineering departments. In older ships, a bell system relayed bridge commands to the engine room, where the engines were manually adjusted to meet bridge orders. Now, direct control from the bridge allows the deck department to implement engine speed changes directly. In addition, displays on the bridge convey data that were once only available to the engineering department. Providing deck personnel with data from the engine room imposes new demands on them. These changes may introduce new knowledge requirements regarding interpretation of engine room data similar to those found in the process control domain.

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