I need some assistance with these assignment. the modern middle east Thank you in advance for the help! The European countries gobbled up more territories and the Ottomans had to rely more on Germany for support, which in turn led to more debt (Fromkin, 1989, p. 78). They tried to modernize their state, as did other local leaders in the Middle East, but to no avail. By the late 19th century, there were rapid reforms underway. It is true that railways and telegraphs lines were built, and that schools and universities were opened—but all these efforts to modernize were too expensive, and the debt continued to mount. Many countries went bankrupt, spending more than they brought in and again this led to more Western control. Also, these efforts to modernize were also very divisive: in each of the countries or regions in question, there was a strong religious presence than objected to such happenings. You could say the problem came down to unrestrained bad financial habits and a lack of imagination (Siegel, 2002, p.120). The rulers during this period kept digging themselves into a deeper hole. Finally, most of the Ottoman Empire were owned by European countries and a long period of colonization and dependency began. If the rulers had played their cards better and not overextended themselves, things would have been different.

The first explorers of the Orient brought to the West the first stories and images of the people of the East. In that respect, they are responsible for setting the tone of the relationship between the two cultures. These first early images seemed in some way, Edward Said argues, to occasion what came after the—political and administrative control of the East as a vast colony (Said, 1979, p. 57). No effort was made to understand the cultural divide between East and West. this lack of understanding led Westerners to believe their own way of life was simply better and should be taught to Easterners. Indeed, as many Eastern nations became colonies of the West, this idea increased.

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