Hi, need to submit a 1250 words paper on the topic Action and Mechanisms of Saponin Containing Plants. Mucous is, fluidified facilitating elimination and decongestion. In addition, stimulation of sensitive receptors induces a nociceptive response transmitted by the trigeminal nerve. This favors the opening of ostium raising glandular secretions and cilia movement. Secretions accumulated in the sinuses are then drained through the nose giving quick relief from nasal congestion.

Isoquinoline alkaloids are a class of active alkaloids with medicinal properties. Their properties include antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antifungal, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, cholagogue, antiviral, anti-oxidant, amoebicidal and abilities to act as enzyme inhibitors. They are found in Ranunculaceae, Berberidaceae and Papaveraceae families.

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Berberine is contained in many plants. Coptis Chinensis is a species used in Chinese medicine and controls bacterial and viral infections. Phellodendron amurense has been used to treat gastric ulcers, bacterial infections, fungal infections and diabetes. Berberis aristate is used in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of gastroenteritis.

Parts used are bark, root and stem. Active ingredients are protoberberines and bisbenzylisoquinolines. The active ingredients are protoberberines, bisbenzylisoquinolines, chelidonic acid, tannins, wax and resins.

Traditional uses include as the blood purifier during the spring months and external eye and mouthwash, jaundice treatment (by Eclectics), digestive stimulant, biliousness and treatment of gallstones (Hoffmann, pp 120-122).

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning is caused by ingestion of material usually from plants, containing this material. The plants are eaten as food, as medicine, or contaminants in agricultural produce. Cereals and forage crops may be contaminated by pyrrolizidine containing weeds and these alkaloids eventually end up in commercial flour.

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