Hello, I am looking for someone to write an article on Mannitol for Cerebral Oedema: A Study on Osmosis and Buffer Action. It needs to be at least 1250 words. Osmotherapy is used to treat this condition. In this therapy, an osmotic gradient is created to remove excess water from the brain. Mannitol (hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexyl, C6H8(OH)6), the sugar alcohol is often used. An optimum amount of mannitol, when administered to patients with cerebral edema, causes an osmotic gradient and decreases blood viscosity (Jha p. 328). As with the injection of any drug into the bloodstream, the intravenous feed of mannitol must be isotonic with blood (Atkins 2006 p. 156).

In aqueous solution, mannitol acts as a Brønsted acid — it loses a proton and turns the solution acidic (Wishart 2006). In blood plasma and intracellular fluids, the protein buffer system resists this change.

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To study the principle of osmosis, we placed a sealed risking tubing sac filled with sugar solution and dye vertically in a beaker of water. We observed the increase in the dyed solution level in a capillary tube connected at the other end of the tubing. The level of a colored solution in the capillary tube increased. The tubing sac turned turgid.

Five conical flasks with different volumes of acetic acid (0.1mol/dm3) and sodium acetate (0.1mol/dm3) solutions showed different pH levels when measured with a pH meter. The pH calculated using the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation (Equation 1) varied for each flask (Table 1).

Osmosis is the spontaneous movement of a pure solvent into a solution separated by a semipermeable membrane — permeable for the solvent but not for the solute. The concentration gradient between the solvent and the solution causes the solvent to move into the solution across the semipermeable membrane. The solute molecules cannot cross the semipermeable membrane because of their higher mass and their association with water molecules. Osmotic pressure is the pressure applied by the solution to stop the influx of solvent. (Atkins 2006 p.154)&nbsp.

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