Create a 1 page page paper that discusses from what you know about action potentials describe feasible mechanisms whereby anaesthetics might prevent pain.
Feasible mechanisms whereby anesthetics might prevent pain. Local based anesthetics are globally used in the treatment or preventionof acute pain as well as chronic pain, inflammatory ailments, prognostic and diagnostic needs. To this end, there are myriad anesthetics such as dissociation anesthetics. These drugs result to an elevated feeling of environmental dissociation within the patient. Evidently, these categories of drugs include Ketalar or Ketamine Hydrochloride (Nagelhout & Plaus, 2005).
It is a non barbiturate, non narcotic anesthetic that results to a mental dissociative state that is consistent with amnesia, sedation and analgesia (Ouellette & Joyce 2011). Moreover, its pharmacological effect is evidenced by normal laryngeal-pharyngeal reflexes and extreme analgesia. To this end, the drug’s central point of action in the Central Nervous System is the thalamo-neocortical projection area. Consequently, the ketamine discriminately lowers the neuronal action in certain parts of the cortex.
This is action is more evident in the thalamus and association areas. At the same time, it stimulates the certain areas in the limbic system and hypothalamus (Reiss, Evans, & Broyles 2002). This ultimately results to functional disorganization of unprescribed pathways in the thalamic and midbrain region. Ketalar equally lowers the impulse transmission within the medial medullary formation in the reticular. This area is critical in transmitting the emotional-affective parts on noiception the higher brain areas from the spinal cord.
In addition, the analgesic effects of ketamine are attributed to its occupation of the opiate receptors in the spinal cord and brain. The interaction with the N-Methyl-d-aspartate at times mediates the analgesic and anesthetic action of ketamine (Rosdahl & Kowalski 2008). Moreover, Ketamine’s analgesic effect on the spinal cord is due to the prevention of neuronal action on the dorsal horn wide range dynamic. Evidently, the notion that CNS sodium blockade channels are the mechanism by which ketamine results to anesthesia, has been scientifically dispelled.
ReferencesAnesthesia Related Drugs. (n.d.).hirnforschung.kyb.mpg.de. Retrieved January 24, 2013, from hirnforschung.kyb.mpg.de/fileadmin/uploads/files/Methoden/Betäubungsverfahren_und_Chirurgie/SOP_DrugDescriptions.pdfNagelhout, J. J., & Plaus, K. L. (2005).Handbook of nurse anesthesia .(3rd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.Ouellette, R. G., & Joyce, J. A. (2011).Pharmacology for nurse anesthesiology. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.Reiss, B. S., Evans, M. E., & Broyles, B. E. (2002).
.Pharmacological aspects of nursing care .(6th ed.). Australia: Delmar/Thomson Learning.Rosdahl, C. B., & Kowalski, M. T. (2008).Textbook of basic nursing .(9th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.