Complete 5 pages APA formatted article: Social Learning Theory Goes Beyond the Conditioning. Ian Pavlov developed a theory where he observed that the dogs salivated upon seeing the feeder (Baumrind, 2003). This is because the dogs associated food with the presence of the feeder thus the reaction. At this point, the introduction of a bell may not elicit the same reactions by the dogs and thus a bell is referred to as a conditioned stimulus and the dogs’ non-reaction is an extinction process. The classical conditioning is represented in the “Little Albert” experiment where metal instilled fear for a friendly rat and other furred toys in the child. Classical conditioning only applies where there is a need to re-train a reflex behavior (Baumrind, 2003). The other conditioning is operant conditioning where the response produced not associated with any behavior that the child holds. In this conditioning, reinforcement and punishment can be used to shape behavior (Baumrind, 2003). The use of a Skinner box introduces an animal to the use of a lever to get food, the reinforcement, and an electric shock on the lever to deter the animal from touching the lever (Miltenberger, 2010). There is positive reinforcement, which increases a behavior with a reward and negative reinforcement that increases a behavior, but without reward (Baumrind, 2003). Punishment is meant to decrease a behavior and can be divided into three groups. positive penalty where an unpleasant stimulus is applied, a time-out where the child is isolated from the reinforcer, and response cost where the application of a penalty decreases a behavior (Baumrind, 2003). If the behavior is not reinforced, extinction can happen with classical conditioning and this development can be followed by an extinction burst which means that there could be an increase of a reinforced behavior when reinforcement is withdrawn (Baumrind, 2003).

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