Complete 5 pages APA formatted article: Clonidine and Quinapril. The substrate ‘Cytochrome P450 3A4’, another form of p-hydroxyclonidine, may additionally influence the effect of the heart rate on the patient. (DrugBank, 2011) With the use of Clonidine, patients with existing heart or liver conditions should be monitored closely for any additional strain the use of this pharmaceutical could add to cardiovascular, hepatic, or renal functions.

pH calculation is a measurement of the molarity of a solution, or the measurement of “the concentration of the hydronium ion in moles per liter” through the use of a negative algorithm. (Chem Purdue, 2011) In calculating the pH rate of the molecule Clonidine (C9H9Cl2N3), the formula to use is:

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Complete 5 pages APA formatted article: Clonidine and Quinapril. The substrate ‘Cytochrome P450 3A4’, another form of p-hydroxyclonidine, may additionally influence the effect of the heart rate on the
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Clonidine is found in a number of commercially available medications, therefore in order to calculate the pH rate profile the “CLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE injection, solution” by PharmaForce, Inc. was chosen, in which “each mL of the 100 mcg/mL (0.1 mg/mL) concentration contains 100 mcg of clonidine hydrochloride and 9 mg sodium chloride in water for injection.” (NIH, 2011) This solution uses HCL for balancing the pH rate for clinical use.

Similarly, Dollery (1991) and Buchanan et al (2009) have established a pKa value for Clonidine (C9H9Cl2N3) at 8.05. (Buchanan et al., 2009) In comparing the previous calculation of Clonidine with a pKa value at 8.3 vs. a pKa value of 8.05 at the same values, a solution in sterile water, the result is:

In these calculations, the formula: pKa = -log Ka is used, where pKa is equal to “the negative log of the acid dissociation constant, Ka”. (Volland, 2005) The use of HCL in the solution is evidence of the need to balance the pH levels of Clonidine when using the drug in intravenous or intramuscular injections in the patient for treatment.

The shelf life of the oral Clonidine Hydrochloride tablets and the Clonidine HCL solution for IM & IV injections can be taken to be determinant on the means and method of storage.

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