RESEARCH PROPOSAL DETAILED OUTLINE

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Instructions: The Detailed Outline builds on ideas from your Simple Outline and begins to put some of those ideas into complete sentences. Use information from your Simple Outline—combined with any feedback you may have received on your Simple Outline—as you work on this Detailed Outline. You will flesh out information in this outline when you begin writing your first draft next week.

Some notes before you start on this worksheet:
Topic sentences should tell the reader exactly what that paragraph is going to be about.
Transition sentences are the last sentence of every paragraph. Transition sentences should re-state the main point of that paragraph and connect that main point to the research question.

Section 1: Literature Review
Paragraph 1: Introduction
What is the general topic of your research proposal? Write this in a complete sentence:

Spacing effect in children’s memory

What is something that is not yet known about this topic? Write about this in 1-2 complete sentences:

Impacts of online learning zoom lecture

What is the research question that your research proposal will address? Write your research question in a complete sentence:

The spacing works for multiple age group learning

Paragraph 2: Theme 1 from the literature
What is the first theme from the literature that you will discuss? Describe this theme in a complete sentence:

The gap effect (distributed exercise effect, delay effect) is not a single study episode, but a memory advantage that occurs when you learn a material at different times.

Write your topic sentence for this paragraph in a complete sentence:

Spaced effects resulted in more learning than massed learning

What citations will you include in this paragraph? Identify at least 2 citations:

Spacing effect
Distributed learning
learning and memory

Write your transition sentence for this paragraph in a complete sentence:

In one example, 2.5-year-old children learned new words in spaced or massed environments. When tested in a minute, a day, or a week later, children created words easier to hear once a day for four days than eight times a day. In another study (Vlach, Sandhofer, & Cornell, 2008), three-year-old children were presented with a memory task to learn the names of new toys. New toys were presented in a massed state (once for 30 seconds) or spaced state (three times for 10 seconds, 30 seconds between presentations). The results showed significant advantages in spaced learning

Paragraph 3: Theme 2 from the literature
What is the second theme from the literature that you will discuss? Describe this theme in a complete sentence:

Long-term learning is helps when learning spaced out in time rather than presented in limited time.

Write your topic sentence for this paragraph in a complete sentence:

The spacing effect refers to the finding that long-term memory is enhanced when learning events are spaced apart in time, rather than massed in immediate succession

What citations will you include in this paragraph? Identify at least 2 citations:

cognitive development
Distribute learning
Spacing effect

Write your transition sentence for this paragraph in a complete sentence:

The results of this study showed that time-laced training facilitates simple and complex generalizations. In addition, the results showed that the advantage of taking classes at intervals in time came a week after the last class. As far as we know, this is the first study to prove that spaced learning promotes complex generalization. Therefore, these results have several implications for theory and research, which are described below.

Paragraph 4: Theme 3 from the literature
What is the third theme from the literature that you will discuss? Describe this theme in a complete sentence:

Childhood Experiences and Skills Predict Kindergarten Working Memory.

Write your topic sentence for this paragraph in a complete sentence:

child persistence in learning represents an important determinant of academic success during the school years

What citations will you include in this paragraph? Identify at least 2 citations:

Working memory
Cognitive control
Cognitive skills

Write your transition sentence for this paragraph in a complete sentence:

These results are more than child sex, language and nonverbal intellectual ability, and socioeconomic status. The results of this study suggest a powerful, easily accessible and cost-effective evaluation of early childhood execution functions for the development of early childhood interventions that improve school readiness.

Paragraph 5: Theme 4 from the literature
What is the fourth theme from the literature that you will discuss? Describe this theme in a complete sentence:

The space effect describes a powerful phenomenon in which memory improves when learning events are distributed without continuous presentation.

Write your topic sentence for this paragraph in a complete sentence:

The spacing effect in children’s memory and category induction

What citations will you include in this paragraph? Identify at least 2 citations:

Memory learning
distributed learning
Spacing effect

Write your transition sentence for this paragraph in a complete sentence:

We found that time-to-time learning events improve children’s learning ability, regardless of whether they are the same (memory conditions) or varied (categorical induction conditions). Ironically, it gives children time to forget about the examples of categories they were learning about later on improving their ability to remember them.

Paragraph 6: Hypotheses & Predictions
What is your research hypothesis? Write this in a complete sentence:

Repeated exposure to information improves memory for that information. However, the degree of improvement depends on the repetition interval. These benefits are often minimal when immediate and continuous eradication occurs. However, memory is enhanced when a separating occurs due to time lapse and (spacing/ distributed ordering).

Briefly describe your method (including participants and procedure). (Note: You may need to revise these ideas once you and your group decide what your specific methods will be.) Write 1-3 complete sentences to describe your method:

The children participated individually. Within each stimulus type condition, the same number of children received each of the six lists.

What are your predictions? Write your predictions in complete sentences:

The experimenter presented an Figure-time condition or a word-time condition every five seconds. The experimenter displays the picture manually and labels it verbally. When each picture or word was presented, the Children were labeled or repeated loudly.

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